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Prey Species

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1 Prey Species on Mon Aug 15, 2011 2:24 pm

Luna


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Prey Species


Caribou
Size
The females usually measure 162–205 cm (64–81 in) in length and weigh 79–120 kg (170–260 lb) The males (or "bulls") are typically larger, measuring 180–214 cm (71–84 in) in length and usually weighing 92–210 kg (200–460 lb), though exceptionally large males have weighed as much as 318 kg (700 lb). Shoulder height typically measure from 85 to 150 cm (33 to 59 in), and the tail is 14 to 20 cm (5.5 to 7.9 in) long.
Nose and Hooves
Reindeer have specialized noses featuring nasal turbinate bones that dramatically increase the surface area within the nostrils. Incoming cold air is warmed by the animal's body heat before entering the lungs, and water is condensed from the expired air and captured before the deer's breath is exhaled, used to moisten dry incoming air and possibly absorbed into the blood through the mucous membranes.
Reindeer hooves adapt to the season: in the summer, when the tundra is soft and wet, the footpads become sponge-like and provide extra traction. In the winter, the pads shrink and tighten, exposing the rim of the hoof, which cuts into the ice and crusted snow to keep it from slipping. This also enables them to dig down (an activity known as "cratering") through the snow to their favorite food, a lichen known as reindeer moss. The knees of many species of reindeer are adapted to produce a clicking sound as they walk.
Reproduction
Mating occurs from late September to early November. Males battle for access to females. Two males will lock each other's antlers together and try to push each other away. A male will stop eating during this time and lose much of its body reserves.
Calves may be born the following May or June. After 45 days, the calves are able to graze and forage but continue suckling until the following autumn and become independent from their mothers.
Picture © Cornforth Images


Moose
Size
On average, an adult moose stands 1.8–2.1 m (6–7 ft) high at the shoulder. Males weigh 380–720 kg (850–1580 pounds) and females weigh 270–360 kg (600–800 pounds). The largest of all is the Alaskan subspecies, which can stand over 2.1 m (7 ft) at the shoulder, has a span across the antlers of 1.8 m (6 ft) and averages 634.5 kg (1,396 lbs) in males and 478 kg (1,052 lbs) in females. Typically, however, the antlers of a mature specimen are between 1.2 m (3.9 ft) and 1.5 m (4.9 ft). The largest confirmed size for this species was a bull shot at the Yukon River in September 1897 weighing 820 kg (1,800 lb) and was 233 cm (92 in) tall at the shoulder. The Moose of Alaska matches the extinct Irish Elk as the largest deer of all time. Behind only the bison, the Moose is the second largest land animal in both North America and Europe. The life span of an average moose is about 15–25 years.
Reproduction
Mating occurs in September and October. During this times both sexes will call to each other. Males produce heavy grunting sounds that can be heard from up to 500 meters away, while females produce wail-like sounds. Males will fight for access to females. They either assess which is larger, with the smaller bull retreating, or they may engage in battles, usually only involving the antlers.
Female moose have an eight-month gestation period, usually bearing one calf, or twins if food is plentiful, in May or June. Newborn moose have fur with a reddish hue in contrast to the brown appearance of an adult. The young will stay with the mother until just before the next young are born.
Picture © calxibe.com


Snowshoe Hare
Size
Hares are a bit larger than rabbits, and they typically have taller hind legs and longer ears. Snowshoe hares have especially large, furry feet that help them to move atop snow in the winter. They also have a snow-white winter coat that turns brown when the snow melts each spring. It takes about ten weeks for the coat to completely change color.
Snowshoe hares typically weigh around 2 to 4 lbs (0.9 to 1.8 kg) and are 16 to 20 in (41.3 to 51.8 cm) in size.
Camouflage
For camouflage, its fur turns white during the winter and rusty brown during the summer. Its flanks are white year-round. The Snowshoe Hare is also distinguishable by the black tufts of fur on the edge of its ears. Its ears are shorter than those of most other hares.
Picture © Rick Mousseau Photography


Chipmunk
Size
Chipmunk's length from head to toes is 5-7 in; tail, 3-4 in, and weight is about 2-5 oz.
Fur
They have reddish-brown fur on their upper parts with 5 dark brown stripes and contrasting light brown stripes along their backs and light underparts. They have a tawny stripe that goes from their whiskers to below their ears and light stripes over their eyes. They have a dark tail. Like other chipmunks, they transport food in pouches in their cheeks. They have 2 fewer teeth than other chipmunks and have 4 toes each in the front legs but five in the back legs.
They live in deciduous woods, and prefer locations with rocky areas and shrubs to provide cover.
Picture © Gilles Gonthier


Ptarmigan
Size
Ptarmigans are about 40 centimetres (16 inches) long (tail 8 cm) with a wing-span of 54–60 centimetres (21–24 in).
Plumage
In summer male's plumage is marbled brown, with a reddish hue to the neck and breast, a black tail, and white wings and underparts. It has two inconspicuous wattles above the eyes, which become prominent in the breeding season. The female is similar, but lacks the wattles and has brown feathers strewn all over the belly. In winter, both sexes' plumages become completely white, except for the black tail.
Picture © Craig Schriever

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